More or less lithium in our vehicles?

The carbon footprint of EVs

  1. The sources of energy used to produce the electricity they are powered with.
  2. Their energy consumption.
  3. Their production: An EV can have 30 to 90 % higher production emissions than an ICEV of equivalent size, mainly due to its battery (Ellingsen et al. 2016).

Energy sources

Powering an EV from coal-produced electricity results in a higher footprint than using an equivalent size ICEV that is fueled with petrol or diesel (Source: European Environment Agency)

Energy consumption

A heavier vehicle produces more emissions per kilometer as they need more energy to move than a lighter vehicle (Source: CIXI)
EVs produce fewer emissions than an equivalent size ICEV thanks to their higher tank-to-wheel efficiency and cleaner energy sources of electricity. (Source: CIXI)
EVs produce fewer emissions than an equivalent size ICEV thanks to their higher tank-to-wheel efficiency and cleaner energy sources of electricity. (Source: CIXI)

Battery size

The battery contributes to 33% to 46% to the production phase, 4% to 11% to the use phase, and 14% to 23% to the recycling phase. The overall battery contribution represents 14% to 26% of the total lifecycle emissions of an EV. (Source: CIXI)

Beyond CO2

The HYFIT vehicle

How the experiment takes place

Trips card to remember the study for a week. (Source: CIXI)


  1. H. C. Righolt and F. G. Rieck, “Energy chain and efficiency in urban traffic for ICE and EV,” 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), Barcelona, 2013, pp. 1–7. doi: 10.1109/EVS.2013.6914820
  2. Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen et al, “The size and range effect: lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles,” 2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 054010. doi:10.1088/1748–9326/11/5/054010
  3. European Environment Agency. “Infographic: Range of life-cycle CO2 emissions for different vehicle and fuel types” Prod-ID: INF-66-en, Published 29 Aug 2017 Last modified 22 Nov 2017. Ragan’s PR Daily,
  4. D. Hall et N. Lutsey, “Effects of battery manufacturing on electric vehicle life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions,” Thr international council on clean transportation — ICCT. Beijing, Berlin, Brussels, San Francisco, Washington, 2018, pp. 1–12.
  5. R. Hollender and J. Shultz, “Bolivia and its Lithium: Can the ‘Gold of the 21st Century’ Lift a Nation out of Poverty?” A Democracy Center Report, Cochabamba, 2010. pp. 1–57.
  6. E. Mann, “Digital Technology is Dependent on Forced Labor: The Exploitative Labor Practices of Cobalt Extraction in the Democratic Republic of Congo,” 2010.




We build Active Low-Footprint “HYFIT” Vehicles

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